POLICING, RACE, & PUBLIC POLICY
In addition to my research on discourse and policy change, I study the intersection of race, gender, and public policy in the US by focusing on racially disparate policing and its causes.
Please do not hesitate to contact me if you would like a copy of any working paper.
What 20 Million Traffic Stops Tell Us About Policing and Race
Frank Baumgartner, Derek Epp, & Kelsey Shoub
Using information on over 20 million traffic stops, we explore: 1) the extent of racial disparities in traffic stop outcomes in North Carolina; 2) their political sources; & 3) potential policy responses. For additional information, click here. Here are links to some of the press focused on the book:
What data on 20 million traffic stops can tell us about ‘driving while black’, an interview in the Monkey Cage about our book with John Sides
Is It Time to Reconsider Traffic Stops?, City Lab, by Tanvi Misra
New Books Network Interview with Frank Baumgartner about our main findings
The fears of Driving While Black in NC are true. The data prove it., News and Observer Op Ed
ARTICLES ON POLICING & POLICY
Peer Reviewed Articles
Kelsey Shoub, Katelyn Stauffer, and Miyeon Song. "Differences in Men's and Women's Policing Behavior: Evidence from Traffic Stops." Conditionally accepted at the American Journal of Political Science.
Leah Christiani, Kelsey Shoub, Frank Baumgartner, Derek Epp, and Kevin Roach. Forthcoming. "Descriptive Representation and the Reduction of Racial Disparities in Traffic Stop Outcomes." Politics, Groups, and Identities.
Roach, Kevin, Frank Baumgartner, Leah Christiani, Derek Epp, and Kelsey Shoub. 2020. "At the Intersection: The Amplifying Effects of Gender and Stop Purpose on Race in Determining Traffic Stop Outcomes." Journal of Race, Ethnicity, and Politics.
[Paper] [Online Appendix] [Replication Materials: Code, CT, MD, IL, NC]
Shoub, Kelsey, Leah Christiani, Frank Baumgartner, Derek A. Epp, and Kevin Roach. 2020. "Fines, Fees, Forfeitures, and Disparities: A Link Between Municipal Reliance on Fines and Racial Disparities in Policing." Policy Studies Journal.
[Paper] [Online Appendix] [Replication Materials]
Shoub, Kelsey, Derek Epp, Frank Baumgartner, Leah Christiani, and Kevin Roach. 2020. "Race, Place, and Context: The Persistence of Race Effects in Traffic Stops Outcomes in the Face of Situational, Demographic, and Political Controls." Journal of Race, Ethnicity, and Politics.
[Paper] [Online Appendix] [Replication Materials]
Baumgartner, Frank R., Derek A. Epp, Kelsey Shoub, and Bayard Love. 2017. Targeting Young Men of Color for Search and Arrest during Traffic Stops: Evidence from North Carolina, 2002-2013. Politics, Groups, and Identities. Vol. 5, No. 1: 107-131. [Paper]
Black Dignity Matters: Research shows that police do subject African Americans to much greater unwarranted scrutiny and harsher treatment, Reason.com, by Ronald Bailey, July 15, 2016
Color-Conscious Drug Warriors Breed Mistrust: Two recent studies confirm anecdotal evidence of racial disparities in police treatment of drivers and pedestrians, Reason.com, by Jacob Sullum, August 1, 2016.
Reprinted in The Politics of Protest: Readings on the Black Lives Matter Movement edited by Nadia Brown, Ray Block Jr., and Christopher Stout
Baumgartner, Frank R., Leah Christiani, Derek A. Epp, Kevin Roach, and Kelsey Shoub. 2017. Racial Disparities in Traffic Stop Outcomes. Duke Forum for Law and Social Change, 9: 21-53. [Paper]
Cops in Cook County among worst, huge study of traffic stops across U.S. finds, InjusticeWatch.org, by Sam Hart, February 28, 2017.
Study reveals racial discrepancy in Evanston police searches following traffic stops, by David Fishman, The Daily Northwestern, March 7, 2017.
Frank R. Baumgartner, Leah Christiani, Derek A. Epp, Kelsey Shoub, and Kevin Roach. "Ten Years of Study and the Protesters are Right. What traffic stops tell us about racial bias in policing." 3Streams on Medium. June 25, 2020.
Research in Progress
Kelsey Shoub. "Comparing Systemic and Individual Sources of Racially Disparate Traffic Stop Outcomes." Invited to Revise and Review. [Paper]
Kelsey Shoub and Leah Christiani. "A Light Brush with the Law: The Effect of Traffic Tickets on Political Participation." Under Review.
Katelyn Stauffer, Miyeon Song, & Kelsey Shoub. "How Police Agency Diversity, Policies, & Outcomes Shape Citizen Trust & Willingness to Engage." Under Review.
Kelsey Shoub, Miyeon Song, and Katelyn Stauffer. Pink Policing: Officer Gender, Policing Outcomes, and Citizen Trust in Democracy. Book project in preparation.
Past research offers competing conclusions as to whether women's inclusion in police forces alters policing outcomes, with some scholars arguing that women bring a distinct perspective to policing that manifests in different outcomes among officers. Others, in contrast, argue that the highly masculine environment of police forces constrains and socializes women to "act like men." In our manuscript, we address these competing expectations by developing a theory that moves beyond asking whether men and women officers behave differently and instead asks under what conditions do gender differences emerge. In doing so, integrate theories from public administration, sociology, criminology, and political science. Our theory hinges on two concepts: (1) gender salience (e.g., activities related to sex based crimes); and (2) the degree to which officers are afforded discretion. We conclude by examining how citizens respond to gender diverse forces in terms of political attitudes and participation.